1. The maintenance instruction
2. Maintenance service
4. Fuel system
5. Systems of greasing, cooling
6. Release system
9. Power shafts
10. A steering
11. Suspension brackets
12. Brake system
13. A body
14. An electric equipment
14.1. A technical characteristics
14.2. Detection of not closed chain
14.3. The generator
14.4. A starter
14.5. Replacement of switches
14.6. Other electric devices
14.7. Bulbs of external illumination
14.8. Bulbs of internal illumination
14.9. External lighting devices
14.10. Adjustment of light of headlights
14.11. A combination of devices
14.12. Elements of a combination of devices
14.14. Screen wiper levers
14.15. The screen wiper and draught engine
14.16. The engine of a screen wiper of a back door
14.18. A radio receiver
14.20. The aerial
14.21. Anticreeping system
14.22. A safety pillow
14.23. Elements of a pillow of safety
14.24. Heating and ventilation system
14.25. Electroschemes and diagrammes
The usual electric chain consists of an electric element, switches, the relay, engines, safety locks, automatic switches, wires and sockets which connect an electric element to the accumulator and a body.
Before to try to define a malfunction source, study the corresponding scheme of an electric equipment for representation reception about the elements established in this chain. The circle of possible sources of malfunction can be narrowed if to check up functioning of other elements entering into the given chain. If some elements or chains выхолят out of operation simultaneously the problem, obviously, consists in a safety lock, the general for these chains / of elements, or contact to a body.
Electric problems are usually caused by the simple reasons: the weakened or rusted sockets, absence of contact to a body, the fused safety locks, the fused burnt through crosspiece or the faulty relay. Visually check up a condition of all safety locks, wires and sockets in the failed chain before to start check of other elements. Use schemes of an electric equipment for that definition what of trailer clips are necessary for checking up for detection of a source of malfunction.
The basic tools necessary for detection of a source of malfunction, the tester or the voltmeter (a bulb on 12 volt and the pair of wires with щупами on the ends also can be used for carrying out of some checks) are; an ohmmeter; the battery and a set of wires with щупами, накидной a puncture, it is desirable with the automatic switch or a safety lock which is used for detour of checked wires or elements.
For detection of the reason of unreliable work any of elements (usually because of bad connection / of pollution of contacts or the damaged isolation) it is possible to inspect stirring of wires. It is necessary to shake a wire by a hand to check up, whether there is a malfunction at wire movement. Such method it is possible to narrow a circle of possible sources of malfunction to any wire.
Along with problems because of bad connection of wires two basic types of malfunctions can take place in electric equipment system – the opened chain or short circuit.
Problems with the opened chain appear as a result of breakage in an electric equipment chain that interrupts current course. The opened chain will cause switching-off of an element of an electric equipment.
Problems with short circuit are caused by short circuit of a site of a chain that leads to leak of a current from other chain, usually directly on a body. Short circuit is usually caused by rupture of isolation of wires that allows a wire to concern other wire or any earthed element, for example, bodies. Short circuit usually leads перегоранию a corresponding safety lock.
Detection of rupture of a chain
The majority of problems of the opened chain are caused by the broken or weakened socket.
Detection of a source of short circuit
Elements of loading of a chain are elements which consume an electric current, such as bulbs, electric motors, heating elements etc.
Detection of bad grounding
The negative plug of the accumulator is connected to "weight" – to metal of a body, the engine or a transmission. Thus many elements of an electric equipment are connected in such a manner that the positive wire, thus a current approaches to them only comes back to the accumulator through body metal. It means that fastening of an element of an electric equipment and a body are a part of an electric chain. Therefore the bad or rusted fastening can cause refusal of work of an element or lead to its unstable or bad work. In particular, bulbs can burn with dim light (especially if in a point of grounding of this bulb it is carried out grounding of any else included element of an electric equipment), electric motors can slowly work, and also work of one chain can have an effect imperceptible at first sight on work of other chain. Do not forget that on many cars grounding wires between some elements, such as the engine / transmission and a body, that is in those places where there is no direct contact between metal elements because of soft rubber fastenings or a paint coat are used.